If you need a working paper from this timeframe, please let us know and we will upload it to the RRI website.


Applying A Method of Paired Comparisons to Measure Economic Values for Multiple Goods Sets

Randall S. Rosenberger, George L. Peterson, and John B. Loomis

Reprint in the Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 34,1:215-229, 2002


A method of paired comparisons is adapted for use in estimating economic measures of value. The method elicits multiple binary choices for paired items in a choice set. Probability distributions and economic values are estimated nonparametrically and parametrically. The method is applied in an experimental context with a choice set composed of four private goods and several sums of money. The sample’s median value estimates for the goods are generally not different than the market prices for these goods. People who are in the market for a good value it higher than those not in the market for the good.

A Comparison of Survey and Non-Survey Methods for Estimating County-level Demand for Educational Attainment

Christiadi and Scott Loveridge

Working Paper #2000-2021

(pp. 58, 286 KB)


The implementation of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 increases the relevance of methods such as that proposed bo Goetz and Debertin for estimating demand for educational attainment at county level utilizing secondary data. The method focuses the analysis on the demand of private businesses, and makes possible a simple forecast of future demand. The final estimates obtained by the method impose distributions of educational attainment demanded by private businesses in a county. This study compares the distributions with survey-based results. The paper focuses on two assumptions adopted by non-survey method: (1) fixed proportions of occupations per sector and (2) fixed proportions of educational attainment per occupation. The study found evidence that differences in the distribution of businesses by size and by sub-sector across counties might play role in determining the final demand. The non-survey method does not yet take this matter into account. There are indications that proportions of input might change over time, so it might be necessary for the non -survey method, especially when estimating the demand of years away from the decennial census years, to use data sets that are made available annually, such as Current Population Survey, rather than Census. Another important finding is the early evidence that certain occupations in different sectors might demand for different composition of educational attainment. This suggests that it might be necessary, in the future, for the non-survey method to redefine its second assumption. The study also finds West Virginia’s occupational distribution to be substantially below the national average for top-level occupations, a hint that the state may be under investing in education. Firms also indicated a real need for more computer training.

County-Level Determinants of the Rate of New Firm Formation in West Virginia

Leticia Garcia

Working Paper #2000-2015

(pp. 19, 70 KB)


This paper analyzes county-level variations in new enterprise formation in the State of West Virginia 1993-1998 using data from the County Business Patterns Economic Profile and the American Business Disk. Two econometric models are used. The first model considers differences among the 55 counties, while the second model focuses on differences among counties and among the 9 SIC sectors. The purpose of the models is to identify a range of key determinants for the creation of new firms. The choice of variables is based on previous theoretical and survey research. The dependent variable in both models is the rate of new firm formation. The explanatory variables are chosen using demand and supply considerations. On the demand side, changes in population and income are significant. Variables that affect the cost of the firm and market concentration are significant on the supply side. The intuition about both sets of variables may be that giving relevant information to the firms regarding expected profit might be important in designing incentive programs.

Population Change and the Contextual Nature of Crime in Nonmetropolitan Counties

Cynthia Barnett and F. Carson Mencken

Working Paper #2000-2014

(pp.40, 374 KB)


This research explores violent and property crime rates in nonmetropolitan counties. Nonmetropolitan counties are argued to have lower crime rates because of higher levels of social integration. We test the hypothesis that predicators of crime in social disorganization and other macro-structural theories of crime (such as poverty rates, female headed household rates, income inequality, and racial composition) have different effect on violent and property crimes at different levels of population stability. Utilizing the FBI UCR data from 1989-91, we predict the 1989-91 average violent and property crime rates for nonmetropolitan counties. Using an MLE spatial lag regression model, the results show that a factor analyzed index of resource deprivation (poverty rate, income inequality, percent nonwhite, percent non graduating from high school, percent female headed households) has conditional effects on both violent and property crime in non metropolitan counties. Contrary to expectations, the results show that resource deprivation has a greater positive effect on both violent and property crimes in nonmetropolitan counties that lost population between 1980 and 1990. We failed to replicate the interaction effects for metropolitan counties. Implications for theory and research are discussed.

Choosing the Discount Rate: A Fairy Tale

Thoms F. Torries

Working Paper #2000-2013

(pp. 9, 31 KB)


A tale involving a Prince, his wizard, a bargaining magical frog, the wise old rabbit, and the Prince’s neighboring rulers illustrates a number of known and less well known hazards in choosing the discount rate for evaluating investments. The tale reveals a new twist to the determination of the actual value of the opportunity cost of capital that involves deviations in estimated project value caused by the profession inability of forecasters, evaluators and decision makers.

Application GIS in Ecotourism Development Decisions: Evidence from the Pearl of Africa

James Obadiah Bukenya

Working Paper #2000-2012

(pp. 30, 1,349 KB)


This study demonstrates the uses of geographical information system (GIS) and multi-criterion decision-making framework (MCDM) in solving a spatial multi-objective problem of ranking and prioritizing Uganda’s national parks for ecotourism development. The ranking model adopted allows formal analysis of the effects of alternative weighting schemes and their spatial sensitivity on national park ranking. The results show that (1) Uganda’s national parks can be arranged and ranked into three sub-groups, and (2) the national parks in the western region of the country are ranked higher than those in the other regions.

A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Local Leader Incentives in Economic Development

Scott Loveridge

Working Paper #2000-2007

(pp. 13, 47 KB)


This paper sets forth a taxonomy of local economic development practitioners and develops some rationale for explaining the forces that motivate different types of local economic development policies.

Globalization, Oil Price Volatility, and the U.S. Economy

Walter C. Labys

Working Paper #2000-2006

View Paper (pp. 25, 97 KB)


The rise of economic globalization has made us more aware of world financial crises and their rapid transmission from one country to another, largely due to the accelerated speed of global communications. Regional financial crises such as those stemming from the European monetary grid breakdown in 1992, the currency devaluation in Mexico in 1995, the Asian recession beginning 1997, and the Russian default in 1998 have become more frequent and their domestic economic impacts have grown. While such crises can arise from fluctuations in foreign exchange and stock markets, economic instability can also result from volatility in world primary commodity markets. Of most recent importance have been the crude oil market crises including the Arab production embargo in 1973, the fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979, and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Since 1999, OPEC has repeated its effort to cycle prices upwards. The previous oil price jumps led to higher energy prices and eventually to the severe recessions of 1975 and 1980-82 in the US. This paper attempts to examine the importance of commodity markets, to trace the influences of globalization on these markets, to focus on the crude oil market as a source of volatility including its impacts on the US economy, and to explore oil market stabilization possibilities that could reduce these impacts.

A Human Development Index for West Virginia Counties

Alison Chisholm Hanham, Sam Berhanu, and Scott Loveridge

Working Paper #2000-2005 (pp. 18, 162 KB) Slide Show Presentation (pp. 26, 176 KB)


West Virginia is a great place to live. If you had your choice of living anywhere in the state, where would you live? Where would your quality of life be the highest? How would you choose where to locate? Would your decision be based strictly on where you could find the highest paying job or would you also consider the other non-market, social and environmental factors that might enable you to enjoy a long, healthy, and creative life? Using the United Nations Human Development reports as a model, this paper represents a first step in developing a way of assessing human development and quality of life at the county level in West Virginia.

Estimating Employer Demand for County Level Educational Attainment: A Case Study of Taylor County, West Virginia


Working Paper #2000-2004

(pp. 25, 168 KB)


This is an on going study, examining a method proposed by Goetz and Debertin on how to estimate demand f0r educational attainment as county level utilizing secondary data. This study found that the method is potentially a powerful one. The method produces compact information on the types of employees’ educational attainment demanded by employers, and how they relate to the types of occupations and sectors. This output allows people to see, for instance, how skills requirement (indicated by educational attainment) for the same occupation differs when the demand comes from different sectors. The method also gives a better way to assess the kinds of training needed for the workforce. This method, however, works under two main assumptions: (1) a fixed proportion of types of education required per individual occupation, regardless of the sectors, and (2) a fixed proportion of types of occupation required per individual sector. Whether these assumptions are reliable remains to be seen. The study will conduct a primary data survey to examine that.

The Effect of Wage Differentials and Regional Job Growth on Migration: A Case of West Virginia

James Obadiah Bukeny, Peter V. Schaeffer and Tesfa G. Gebremedhin

Working Paper #2000-2003

(pp. 14, 43 KB)


Empirical investigation into the strength of the effect of wages, taxes, and job growth on migration has mirrored theoretical developments. In the early empirical literature, the primary explanatory variables were average wage and unemployment rates while in recent literature these variables have been replaced by more individual-specific variables. Unfortunately, and maybe inescapably, empirical research on the effects of wages, taxes and job growth on migration is confounded by the interconnectedness of these variables. This paper broadens the existing evidence regarding migration by focusing on wage and job growth differences on county level. The results reveal a persistent asymmetry pattern whereby destination economic conditions exhibit the hypothesized effects more than do origin conditions. The implications of these findings are that: (a) conditions at destination influence decisions to relocate more than conditions at origin, (b) workers are found to respond to improved earnings opportunities.

An Empirical Analysis of Family Income Distribution in the United States

James O. Bukenya and Tesfa G. Gebremedhin

Working Paper #2000-2002

(pp. 18, 110 KB)


The study examined the short-term and longer-term cyclical influence of family income inequality in the United States. The results indicated that the deterioration of labor market conditions for males versus females; lower wages for rural versus urban jobs; and industrial versus non-industrial jobs accounted for an increase in income disparities between families in the United States.

Market Transition and Regional Adjustments in the Polish Coal Industry

Wojciech Suwala and Walter C. Labys

Reprinted in Energy Economics, 24,3:285-303, 2002


The Polish coal industry has been undergoing restructuring to provide for its transition to a competitive environment. The coal industry has responded by attempting to downsize its capacity, to increase exports, to reduce employment and to increase productivity. In facing the challenges of the impacts of stronger environmental regulations, the industry has also been forced to consider regional adjustments in different districts of Poland. These kinds of transition difficulties warrant the formulation of a modeling approach that would analyze regional restructuring policies. This paper presents the results of a spatial equilibrium optimization approach that has been designed to meet this need. The modeling framework consists of two-coupled programming models. The first model explains coal production and investment and analyzes decisions related to the closures of unprofitable mines, the construction of new mines in different locations, and the installation of beneficiation equipment and emissions reduction equipment. The second model evaluates coal demand regional distribution patterns based on a spatial equilibrium optimization procedure. The two models are operated sequentially to analyze several scenarios that describe the evolution of the Polish coal market through its recent and future transitions.


Measuring the Impacts of Health Care on
Rural Counties: Hospitals and Clinics in Preston County

Alyse Schrecongost

Working Paper 9912

view paper (pp. 22, 101 KB)


Quality health care systems are important to a community’s health interests, but they also play an important role in a community’s economic vitality. This paper reviews some
contemporary challenges facing rural health care systems due to changes in the health care industry, the health insurance industry, the national economy, and reforms of social benefit
programs. Using Preston County, West Virginia as a case study, the paper illustrates the link between rural economic vitality and quality, accessible healthcare systems. Furthermore, this
paper demonstrates the need for active community involvement in local health care decisionmaking processes. It also provides a variety of methods that can be used to measure the economic impacts of health care systems in a rural county using the IMPLAN input-output program using Preston County hospitals and clinics as a case study.

Using GIS to Identify High Value Areas in Large Coal Resources

Thomas F. Torries and Jeffrey Kern

Working Paper #9911

view paper (pp. 10, 584 KB)


Identifying high value areas of unmined coal when large quantities of coal are available relative to annual markets is difficult because of the uncertainty of when the coal is to be mined. A GIS based methodology developed to value reserve coal in a producing coal region for the purpose of ad valorem taxation also identifies high value areas for mining investment. The methodology is unique in that it accounts for most mining, environmental, and market factors to determine when specific properties are to be mined The methodology and database are useful for directing regional exploration and acquisition activities toward most favorable areas.

The ARC’s Corridor L Tourism Enhancement Project: A Case Study of a Community-Based Economic Development Project

Holly Hendricks

Working Paper #9910

High School Dropouts: Implications in the Economic Development of West Virginia

Semoa C.B. De Sousa and Tesfa Gebremedhin

Working Paper # 9909

View paper (pp. 18, 54 KB)


An ordinary least squares (OLS) regression method was used to evaluate the relative importance of high school dropout rates and other economic factors that could explain the economic development in West Virginia, as represented by the employment rates. The empirical results revealed that an increase in the high school dropout rates and the State GDP increased the employment rates while the increase in unemployment compensation decreased employment rates. Thus, the increase in the employment rates may likely be on unskilled and low paying jobs.

A Multi-Sector Export Base Model of Long-Run Regional Economic Growth

Brian Lego, Tesfa Gebremedhin, and Brian Cushing

Reprinted in the Agriculture and Resource Economics Review, 29,2: 192-197, 2000


The relationships between intersectoral export and local employment and regional economic growth are analyzed in a long-run equilibrium framework. Dynamic location quotients decompose regional employment into export and local components for multiple sectors. Johansen’s Full-Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) approach is used to identify the existence and resultant rank of the co-integrating relationship between sectoral export and local employment in West  Virginia’s four metropolitan areas. Empirical results indicate inter-sectoral basic and non-basic employment form a co-integrating system of equations. Furthermore, this analysis shows that inter-sector shocks to local and export employment may cause multipliers to be positive or negative in magnitude.

Training Needs of Affordable Housing Nonprofits: How to Develop “Better Total Management”?

G. Stevenson Smith

Working Paper #9906

view paper (pp. 23, 101KB)


The following report analyzes the data collected from two surveys as that data relates to the training needs of affordable housing non profits (AHN). The first survey was administered in March to nonprofit managers attending a seminar in Charleston. The second survey is a collection of audio taped phone interviews with the executive directors of 28 AHNs conducted in July. The purpose of both surveys was to collect data about the training needs of AHNs in the State of West Virginia. In addition the first survey collected background information about business practices, funding sources, and computer/software usage. Although the first survey collected valuable information about training needs, it was felt after a review that the training needs of the AHNs could be better identified through a series of open-ended interview questions with executive directors at AHNS.

Relocating Gender and Rural Economic Strategies

Ann Oberhauser

Reprinted in the Journal of Environment and Planning A, 34,7: 1221-1237, 2002


In recent decades, increasing entrepreneurial activities among women have contributed to shifting livelihood strategies at the household, community, and regional scales. In this paper I examine home based work in an economic network to highlight the intersection of gender and economic practices in rural Appalachia. The research demonstrates that these livelihood strategies both construct and are shaped by dynamic material conditions and social processes in place. Economic restructuring in the central Appalachian region has led to the reworking of economic strategies, despite a continued reliance by households on homework and informal activities. The case study for this project as an economic network comprised of sixty home-based workers who produce knitwear for regional and national markets. In-depth interviews and extensive fieldwork are used to examine the complexity of shifting economic livelihoods in the rural Appalachian context. The analysis focuses on the (re)negotiation of gender identities by home-based workers in the context of economic restructuring. The discussion also shows how participation in these activities contributes to economic and social empowerment. Overall, this study offers a critical approach to the economy, work, and gender in a way that analyzed diverse economic practices and the construction of gender identity in a rural, economically marginalized region.

The Origins of Devolution: A Speculative Note

Scott Loveridge

Working Paper #9904

(pp. 8, 27 KB)


Why is devolution gaining strength both in the United States and in other highly developed countries? This note looks at broad social and economic trends that may be contributing to the movement toward more local control of government operations. Among the points discussed are: the end of the cold war; the information age, the booming economy, the increasing globalization of the economy, the rise of the south; and society’s increased understanding of environmental issues. A concluding section comments on what it all means for regional scientists.

Locational Differences in the Underlying Characteristics of Poverty

Brian Cushing and Buhong Zheng

Working Paper #9903 (pp.19, 75 KB)


We explore how poverty differs between urban and rural areas and among U.S. regions, using metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan to proxy urban versus rural. Our study focuses on social and demographic characteristics, rather than economic characteristics. We are concerned with which personal characteristics appear to increase the risk of poverty, regardless of whether these characteristics manifest themselves through unemployment, low-wage employment, or some other economic problem that ultimately leads to poverty. Using data for the working-age population from the one percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing, we find significant differences in predictors of poverty across area types and regions. Our empirical results suggest that anti-poverty programs should vary across area types and regions in order to meet the unique needs of each location’s low-income population.

Violent Crime, Homicide and Spatial Autocorrelation in Mid-Southern Counties

F. Carson Mencken and Cynthia Barnett

Working Paper #9902 (pp.19, 685 KB)


In this paper we explore to what extent murder and violent crime rates in the mid-South are spatially autocorrelated with a variety of county-level spatial association measures. The analysis shows that while statistically the murder and violent crime rates in the mid-Southern counties are spatialy associated, the degree of clustering among these counties is minimal-especially when compared to clustering among the significant predictors of violent crime (percent black, female headed households, percent in poverty, etc.). The analysis has important implications as to how county violent crime rates are being modeled.


Gendered Livelihood Strategies in Rural South Africa and Appalachia

Ann M. Oberhauser

Working Paper 9814
view paper (pp. 15, 99 KB)


This paper examines the contextual nature of gendered livelihood strategies through a comparative study of rural women”s producer groups in former homelands of South Africa and Appalachia.  This comparative approach situates gendered livelihood strategies in distinct local contexts that are constituted by specific historical dynamics and cultural relations. Producer groups are defined here as cooperatives, networks, and other collective economic activities that generate income for households and are part of community-based economic strategies. The discussion focuses on the link between socio-economic conditions and gendered livelihood strategies and the economic viability of these producer groups as sustainable income-generating activities, especially in rural areas. The comparison of production and marketing strategies of a sewing group in South Africa and a knitting group in Appalachia reveals similarities, yet important differences that derive from their specific historical and cultural contexts. In sum, this research advances knowledge of gender and rural development by comparing the gendered nature of collective economic strategies in two peripheral regions of the so-called First and Third World.

An Economist”s Perspective on Urban Design

Scott Loveridge

Working Paper #9813

Keys to Engaging Faculty in Service: Lessons from West Virginia”s Community Design Team

Scott Loveridge

Reprinted in Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21,3: 331-339, 2002


Fostering faculty participation in scholarly public service activities requires more attention to developing appropriate structures to motivate action. This article highlights several methods of stimulating and maintaining faculty interest in service using an extended example: a university-based planning assistance program for small communities. Creating the necessary preconditions for scholarly public service requires creativity, time, and administrative commitment.

Web-based Learning Materials in Regional Science, Version 0.0

Scott Loveridge

Working Paper #9811 (pp.8, 23 KB)

Universities and Regional Economic Development: Does Agglomeration Matter?

Attila Varga

Reprinted in Johansson, Börje, Charlie Karlsson and Roger Stough (Eds.) Theories of Endogenous Regional Growth – Lessons for Regional Policies, Springer, Berlin, 345-367

Federal Spending and Economic Growth in Appalachian Counties

F. Carson Mencken

Reprinted in Rural Sociology, 65,1: 126-147, 2000


In this paper I use a model informed by key theories of regional processes, and I test three related hypotheses concerning the effects of different types of federal spending (public investment, defense, salaries/wages) on economic growth in the 399 Appalachian counties during recent business cycles. The analysis incorporates a maximum likelihood estimate spatial lag regression model and shows the federal public investment spending and defense spending exerted net positive effects on per capita income, civilian employment, and private nonfarm employment growth rates between 1983 and 1988. In addition, public investment spending had a positive relationship with percentage of earnings from mining for the 1983-1988 period. Federal spending, however, had less consistent effects during the 1989-1992 recession. Implications for theory and research on regional processes are discussed.

Expressions of Discontent in America: Regional and Temporal Aspects of Third Party Governors and Gubernatorial Candidates, 1866-1996


Shannon Jones

Working Paper #9807

The Notion of Community in Neighborhood Planning Practice

Working Paper #9804 (pp.29, 1,4412 KB)

Local Academic Knowledge Transfers and the Concentration of Economic Activity

Attila Varga

Reprinted in the Journal of Regional Science, 40,2: 289-309, 2000


9802 Attila Varga Universities in Local Innovation Systems
9801 Luc Anselin Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis in a Geocomputational Environment [reprinted in a book entitled, GeoComputation, a Primer, eds., Paul Longley, Sue Brooks, Rachel McDonnell and Bill MacMillan. New York: Wiley Publishers, 1998 pp. 77-94]


9733 Chuck Failing, IV A Spatial Analysis of Southern Gubernatorial Elections: 1965-1997
9734 Victor V. Claar A Kalman-Filter Approach to Estimating the Natural Rate of Unemployment
9732 Brian Cushing Migration and Persistent Poverty in Rural America: A Case Study from Central Appalachia [replaced by a chapter in a book entitled, Migration and Restructuring in the U.S.: A Geographic Perspective, Kavita Pandit and Suzanne Davies Withers, eds., Rowman & LIttlefield, 1999]
9731 Luc Anselin Rao’s Score Test in Spatial Econometrics [reprinted in Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference]
9730 F. Carson Mencken Social Contacts and Job Searching: Does Gender of Contact Matter?
9729 Attila Varga Regional Economic Effects of University Research: A Survey
9728 Shuming Bao and Luc Anselin Linking Spatial Statistics with GIS: Operational Issues in the SpaceStat-ArcView Link and the S+Grassland Link [reprint in Journal of Geographical Systems 2,3: 287-306, 2000]
9727 Josh Masnick Kim and F. Carson Mencken Household and Local Labor Market Determinants of Economic Well-Being in the State of West Virginia [replaced by a chapter in a book entitled, Inside West Virginia: Public Policy Perspectives for the 21st Century, R. Althouse and B. Keith (eds.). West Virginia University Press, 1999]
9726 F. Carson Mencken and James H. Noonan The Effects of Federal Spending on Earnings Change in Appalachia
9725 Emily Talen and Mary Coffindaffer The Utopianism of Children: An Empirical Study of Children’s Neighborhood Design Preferences
9724 F. Carson Mencken Right-to-Work Laws and Local Economic Change: Recent Evidence from Appalachia” [reprint in Sociological Focus (2000]
9723 Jeffrey Merrifield Examining Substitution Between Property Crimes Using North Carolina Data
9722 Brian Cushing Will Interstate Differences in Restrictions on Receipt of Public Assistance Affect Migration of the Poor? Some Evidence from the Past
9721 Andrew Isserman The National Role in Rural Economic Development: Some Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications [reprinted in Economic Development Quarterly]
9720 F. Carson Mencken and Idee Winfield Employer Recruiting and the Gender Composition of Jobs [reprint in Sociological Focus 31,4: 357-372, 1999]
9719 Emily Talen, AICP Measuring the Public Realm: A Case Study [reprinted in Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17,4: 344-360, (2000]
9718 Laura A. Blanciforti and Edit Kranner Estimating County Cost of Living Indexes: The Issue of Urban Versus Rural
9717 Jennifer L. Hoskinson Agricultural Transformation in Rural Western Kenya: The Maize Crop in the Mt. Elgon Region, 1930-1950
9714 William H. Miernyk Economic Growth Theory and the Georgescu-Roegen Paradigm [replaced by a chapter in a book entitled, Bioeconomics and Sustainability, K. Mayumi and J. M. Gowdy, Cheltenham (eds.), UK: Edward Elgar, 1999]
9712 F. Carson Mencken and Joachim Singelmann Business Cycles and Socioeconomic Performance in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Economies during the 1980s [reprinted in The Sociological Quarterly 39,2: 215-238, 1998]
9711 Anna Falkner Regional Aspects of Political Party Development in the United States: The Case of Governors, 1789-1824
9710 Brad Keller Measuring Governors’ Effectiveness: A Control Group Study
9709 Emily Talen, AICP Can “Sense of Community” be Built? An Assessment of the Social Doctrine of New Urbanism [reprinted in Journal of Planning Literature 15,2: 171-183, 2000]
9708 Emily Talen, AICP Planning Dollars and Sense: An Analysis of Planning Expenditure in Florida [reprint in Planning Practice and Research 15,4: 343-352, 2000].
9707 F. Carson Mencken Revisiting Socioeconomic Well-Being in Appalachia using Large Sample Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques [reprinted in Sociological Focus 30: 79-97, 1997]
9706 Stephen Ellis and Cynthia Rogers Local Economic Development as a Game: We’re Caught in a Trap, I Can’t Walk Out … [reprint in Review of Regional Studies]
9705 Luc Anselin and Harry H. Kelejian Testing for Spatial Error Autocorrelation in the Presence of Endogenous Regressors
9704 Buhong Zheng and Brian J. Cushing Distribution-Free Statistical Inferences for Testing Marginal Changes in Inequality Indices [reprinted in Journal of Econometrics, 101: 315-335, 2001]
9703 Brian J. Cushing Racial Differences in the Migration Response to Social Welfare Benefits: Revisited [ 2002-4 replaces this working paper]
9702 Terance J. Rephann The Economic and Social Impacts of NIMBYs
9701 R. Davidson, W. C. Labys, and J. B. Lesourd Wavelet Analysis of Commodity Price Behavior [reprinted in Computational Economics 11:103-128, 1998]


9631 Emily Talen, AICP Is More Planning Better? An Exploration of Planning Expenditure in Florida
9630 David J. Sorenson Estimating Bank Lending Risk and Its Effect on Asset Allocation
9629 Brian J. Cushing The Influence of Race Relations on Destination Choices of Black-American Migrants in the United States, 1955-1980
9628 Luc Anselin SpaceStat.apr User’s Guide [replaced by SpaceStat ]
9627 Luc Anselin Interactive Techniques and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis [reprint in Geographical Information Systems: Principles Techniques, Management and Applications, eds., P. Longley, M. Goodchild, D. Maguire, and D. Rhind. New York: Wiley,1999, pp. 251-264]
9624 Andrew Isserman and Kimberly Dinjar Mencken External Ownership and Bank Lending Behavior: Empirical Evidence Using Control Group Methods
9623 Beth Loy and Scott Loveridge Local Economic Developers’ Preferences for Industrial Recruitment: A Contingent Valuation Approach
9622 F. Carson Mencken Industry Structure and Earnings Growth During National Business Cycles in Appalachia
9621 Laura A. Blanciforti Estimating Interregional Price Indexes: Opportunities and Pitfalls
9620 David J. Sorenson, William N. Trumbull, and Christopher Cornwell Estimating the Economic Model of Crime: Does Space Matter? [reprinted in a book entitled, Readings in Urban Economics Issues and Public Policy, ed. R. W. Wassmer, Blackwell Publishers, 2000].
9618 Luc Anselin and Shuming Bao Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis Linking SpaceStat and ArcView [reprinted in a book entitled, Recent Developments in Spatial Analysis, eds., M. M. Fischer and A. Getis. Springer (1997]
9617 Luc Anselin and Anil K. Bera Spatial Dependence in Linear Regression Models with an Introduction to Spatial Econometrics [reprinted in a book entitled, Handbook of Applied Economic Statistics, eds., A. Ullah and D.E.A. Giles, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998, pp. 237-289]
9616 F. Carson Mencken and Sally Ward Maggard Informal Economic Activity in West Virginia: A Descriptive and Multivariate Analysis [reprint in Inside West Virginia: Public Policy Perspectives for the 21st Century, eds. R. Althouse and B. Keith. West Virginia University Press,1999].
9615 Luc Anselin Spatial Data Analysis Workbook Using SpaceStat and ArcView
9614 F. Carson Mencken and Idee Winfield Organizational Assessment of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Informal and Formal Recruiting Practices in External Labor Markets [reprinted in The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 57,2: 135-153, 1998]
9613 Luc Anselin GIS Research Infrastructure for Spatial Analysis of Real Estate Markets [ reprint in Journal of Housing Research 9,1: 113-133, 1998]
9612 James J. Friedberg Views of Doñana [reprintd in The Columbia Journal of European Law 3,1: 1-48, 1996-97].
9610 Emily Talen, AICP The Social Equity of Urban Service Distribution: An Exploration of Park Access in Pueblo, CO and Macon, GA
9607 Terance Rephann, Margaret Dalton, Anthony Stair, and Andrew M. Isserman Casino Gambling as an Economic Development Strategy [reprint in Tourism Economics 3,2: 161-183, 1997]
9606 Luc Anselin, Attila Varga, and Zoltan Acs Local Geographic Spillovers Between University Research and High Technology Innovations: A Spatial Econometric Approach [reprint in Journal of Urban Economics 42,3: 422-448, 1997]
9605 Brian J. Cushing Model Specification and the Robustness of Empirical Results from Migration Models
9604 Brian Cushing and Buhong Zheng Reevaluating Differences in Poverty Among Central City, Suburban, and Nonmetropolitan Areas Using Distribution-Sensitive Poverty Measures [reprinted in Applied Economics 32: 653-660, 2000]
9603 Emily Talen and Luc Anselin R Assessing Spatial Equity: The Role of Access Measures [reprinted in Environment and Planning A 30,4: 595-613, 1998]
9602 W. C. Labys and E. Kouassi Structural Time Series Modeling of Commodity Price Cycles


9532 Cynthia Rogers, Kimberly Mencken, and F. Carson Mencken Female Labor Force Participation in Central Appalachia: A Descriptive Analysis [reprinted in the Journal of Appalachian Studies 3,2: 189-210, (1997]
9531 Carson Mencken Job Matching, Recruitment, and Information in External Labor Markets: An Assessment of Neoclassical Models
9530 Stephan Weiler Regional Restructuring and Local Labor Markets
9527 Brian Cushing Poverty in Central Appalachia: People Versus Place
9526 F. Carson Mencken Regional Differences in Socio-Economic Performance in Appalachia During the 1980s [reprinted in Sociological Focus 3,1: 79-97, 1997]
9525 Timothy A. Warner and Michael C. Shank Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery for Feature Selection [reprinted in Remote Sensing of Environment 60: 58-70, 1997]
9524 Emily Talen Success Vs. Failure in Planning Practice: Alternative Perspectives [reprinted in Environment and Planning B 4: 573-587, 1997]
9523 Kimberly Mencken, Cynthia Rogers, and F. Carson Mencken Female Labor Force Participation in Central Appalachia: A Logit Analysis [reprinted in the Journal of Appalachian Studies 3,2: 189-210, 1997]
9522 Emily Talen Visualizing Fairness: Equity Maps for Planners [reprinted in the Journal of the American Planning Association 64,1: 22-38, 1998]
9521 Carl M. Selinger Public Interest Lawyering in Mexico and the United States [reprinted in Inter-American Law Review 27,2: 343-360 1996]
9520 Rodney A. Erickson, Samuel X. Lowe, and David J. Hayward Appalachian Competitiveness in a Global Economy: Industrial Exports and Exporter Establishments, commissioned by the Appalachian Regional Commission
9618 Cynthia L. Rogers Expectations of Unemployment Insurance and Unemployment Duration [reprinted in Journal of Labor Economics 16,3: 630-666, 1998]
9517 Laura A. Blanciforti and Edit Kranner Indirect Methods for Estimating County Cost of Living Indexes
9514 Stephan Weiler The Economics of the Struggling Structurally Unemployed
9513 Andrew M. Isserman The Evolving Appalachian Economy, commissioned by the ARC
9512 Luc Anselin Spatial Patterns in Appalachian Growth and Development: A Report to the Appalachian Regional Commission
9511 Brian Cushing and Cynthia Rogers Income and Poverty in Appalachia: A Report to the Appalachian Regional Commission
9510 Scott Loveridge Local Industrial Recruitment: Boondoggle or Boon?
9509 Stratford Douglas Estimating Relative Standard of Living Among the United States Using Cross-Migration Data reprinted in the Journal of Regional Science 37: 411-436, 1997]
9508 Dwight Billings and Ronald L. Lewis Appalachian Culture and Economic Development [reprinted in the Journal of Appalachian Studies 3,1: 43-69, 1997]
9507 Stephan Weiler The Effects of Industrial Restructuring on Regional Labor Markets: An International Comparison
9506 Cynthia Rogers and Brian Cushing The Appalachian Labor Force: A Report to the Appalachian Regional Commission
9505 Andrew M. Isserman Appalachia Then and Now: An Update of “The Realities of Deprivation” Reported to the President in 1964 [reprinted in the Journal of Appalachian Studies 3,1: 43-69, 1997]
9504 Emily Talen Do Plans Get Implemented? A Review of Evaluation in Planning [reprinted in the Journal of Planning Literature 10,3: 248-259, 1996]
9503 Luc Anselin, Anil K. Bera, Raymond Florax, and Mann J. Yoon Simple Diagnostic Tests for Spatial Dependence [reprinted in Regional Science and Urban Economics 26,1: 77-104, 1996]
9502 Brent Yarnal and The Bourgas Project The Effect of Bulgaria”s Economic and Political Restructuring on Environmental Quality [replaced by book entitled, Bulgaria in Transition, eds., Krassimira Paskaleva, Philip Shapira, John Pickles, and Boian Koulov. Ashgate Publishing Company, 1998
9501 W. C. Labys, D. Badillo, and J. B. Lesourd The Cyclical Behavior of Individual Commodity Price Series [reprinted in Resources Policy, 24,3:147-155, 1998]


Get Back to the Wooden Spoon: How Gender Structures Restructuring in Hungary”s Coal Regions

Sally Ward Maggard

Research Paper 9422


This paper examines the impact of restructuring in the
coal industry as Hungary moves from a command to a market-based
economy in the context of global economic change. The industrial
development of Hungary”s coal regions, the importance of coal in the country”s industrial history, an assessment of the impact of current restructuring for coal, and policies advocated to address the effects of regional economic change are discussed. The impact of gender is traced to an industrial/political/ cultural legacy which shaped the organization of the industry in Hungary and which now influences differential effects of restructuring for women and men living in Hungary”s coal producing regions.

An Evolutionary Model of Tourism

Steve Selin and Debbie Chavez

Research Paper 9421

View Paper (pp. 26, 883 KB)


Partnerships have become a popular tourism management strategy for leveraging scarce resources in an era of fiscal constraint. Despite the popularity of partnerships, little empirical research has been done to explain the processes that occur when such interactions take place. An evolutionary model is presented in this paper based on an empirical study of three tourism partnerships, a review of existing tourism partnership case studies, and the integration of emerging theory from the organizational behavior field. Tourism partnerships begin in a context of environmental forces that cause a partnership to be initiated. Out of this environmental context, partnerships evolve sequentially through a problem-setting, direction-setting, and structuring phase.
Partnership outcomes and feedback loops emphasize the dynamic and cyclical nature of  partnership evolution. Special facilitative skills are needed to sustain and nurture tourism partnerships. Recommendations for future research are made.

Characteristics of Successful Tourism
Partnerships: A Multiple Case Study Design

Steve Selin and Debbie Chavez

Research Paper 9420

View Paper (pp. 19, 708 KB)


In an era of fiscal constraint, leisure service providers are examlming tourism as a revenue enhancement strategy. Anecdotal evidence has established that linkages between public leisure services and the tourism industry are underdeveloped and need strengthening. The purpose of this paper is to develop a contextual understanding of
the dynamic nature of tourism partnerships. Characteristics of partnership success are gleaned from a qualitative research study examining three community partnerships involving the USDA Forest Service and other federal, state, and local organizations and
individuals. Characteristics of partnership success are broken into four categories: personal factors, interpersonal factors, organizational factors, and operational factors. Results from the study suggest a number of managerial actions to enhance the value of partnerships: develop more flexible personnel and financial accounting systems, ensure staff continuity over life of partnership, and implement partnership incentive programs for agency staff and potential external partners. Suggestions for future research are offered.

Chemical Production in the Kanawha Valley

E. Jeffrey Popke, Stephen P. Hanna, and John Pickles

Research Paper 9419

View Paper (pp. 35, 2051KB)


This research report was commissioned by the “Environmental
Consequences of Economic and Political Restructuring in Bulgaria” project funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Program on International Peace and Cooperation. The research report provides comparative information on industry, government, and community responses to pollution hazards from chemical plants in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia.

Perceptions of Environment, Well-Being and
Governance in Bourgas and Kameno Obshtini,
June 1992

John Pickles and Caedmon Staddon

Research Paper 9417

View Paper (pp. 22, 1137 KB)


This paper presents the results of a survey of social attitudes towards environment, economic well-being, and patterns of government in the Bourgas region of Bulgaria. The survey was carried out in several towns and villages around a large stateowned petrochemical plant (Neftochim) in 1992, at a time when efforts were being made at local and national levels to address issues of economic, political, and environmental transition.

A Report on the Products of the Research
Resulting from the MacArthur Foundation
Program on Peace and International
Cooperation, 1991-1994

John Pickles

Research Paper 9415

View Paper  (pp. 22, 1098 KB)


This report contains details of all products of the MacArthur Foundation funded project on liThe Effects of Economic and Political Restructuring in Bulgaria on Environmental Quality: A Case Study of the Impact in the Bourgas Region. II The report includes details of books, chapters in books, published papers, technical and research reports, conference presentations, conference sessions organized, related products of the research project, and details of the personnel associated with the research project.

Small Sample Properties of Tests for Spatial Dependence in Regression Models: Some Further Results

Luc Anselin and Raymond Florax

Research Paper 9414

View Paper (pp. 54, 2136 KB)


This paper extends earlier work on the properties of tests for spatial dependence in regression models by means of a series of Monte Carlo experiments for both irregular and regular spatial configurations. Eight tests are considered that are all based on the results of an ordinary least squares regression: Moran”s I; four Lagrange Multiplier (LM) tests (for spatial error dependence; spatial lag dependence; second order spatial error dependence; and for a first order spatial autoregressive moving average or SARMA process); two robust forms of the Lagrange Multiplier test; and a recently suggested robust test. The empirical size of the tests is assessed and their power is compared against three one-directional alternatives (spatial AR error dependence; spatial MA error dependence; and spatial AR lag) and three two-directional alternatives (second order spatial AR errors; second order spatial MA errors; and a SARMA process). The results of the simulations confirm the power of Moran”s I as a misspecification test against various forms of spatial dependence and provide additional evidence on the power of LM tests against spatial lag alternatives. The use of LM tests, in combination with their robust variants is recommended as the most informative diagnostic to guide a spatial model specification search.


Attitudes about Governance and Environmental
Issues in Burgas and Kameno Obshtini, July 1993

John Pickles and Caedmon Staddon

Research Paper 9413

View Paper (pp. 24, 1489 KB)


This research paper presents summary results and findings of a 1993 survey of citizen attitudes towards changing patterns of governance and environmental regulation in the obstini (counties) of Bourgas and Kameno. The paper deals specifically with perceptions of environmental quality, judgments about the relative importance of economic development and environmental quality, perceptions of the effectiveness of and level of citizen access to government offices and regulatory agencies, and assessments of the general well-being of residents in the region during the period 1989-1993.

The Work Effort and the Consumption
of Immigrants as a Function of their

Peter V. Schaeffer

Research Paper 9412

View Paper  (pp. 21, 938 KB)

Abstract: When immigrants” economic performance has been superior to that of natives, the difference has often been attributed to traits distinguishing them from natives. Recent contributions to the theory of immigration have added another explanation. They show that even if immigrants and natives are identical, the former may face different incentives. This paper also assumes that natives and immigrants are identical in all of their traits. They are fully integrated in the labor market; employers view immigrants and natives as perfect substitutes. Immigrants, however, bear a cost to come to the destination country, a cost not incurred by natives. These costs are assumed to manifest themselves in tvvo different ways. First there are the monetary costs. These include not only the out-of-pocket costs of moving but also the costs to stay in touch with family and friends vvho stayed behind, and the costs of meeting obligations that may be expected of the migrant. Second, the nonmonetary costs include stress, loss of location specific human capital and, related to that, lack of assimilation. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the incentives created by these costs and how they influence the decision of immigrants relative to those of natives. Particular attention is given to the role of assimilation.

Gender and Schooling in Appalachia:
Historical Lessons for an Era of Economic Restructuring

Sally Ward Maggard

Research Paper 9411

View Paper (pp. 31, 1312 KB)

Abstract: This paper argues that past failures in manpower and job training programs in Appalachia, as well as low educational attainment in Central Appalachia are linked to the region”s industrial history and gender relations. To avoid repeating these failures, new federal initiatives in work force training and education must intentionally address particular needs of displaced workers, new entrants in the work force, and communities suffering from economic restructuring.

A General Method for Measuring, Decomposing, and Testing Marginal Changes in Income Distributions

K. Victor Chow, John P. Formby, and Buhong Zheng

Research Paper 9410

View Paper (pp. 26, 2017 KB)

Abstract: A general method for measuring and decomposing marginal changes in income and earnings distributions is presented and applied to the 1990-91 recession. The large sample properties of the marginal decompositions are derived and statistical inference procedures are
developed. The methodology requires panel data and the SIPP eight wave longitudinal file is used to measure and test for changes in both income and earnings distributions. Marginal decompositions of the family income distribution by race and earnings distributions by class of worker are used to illustrate the methodology. The results provide strong evidence of negative and significant marginal decompositions for African-American families and private sector blue collar workers. These two population subgroups lost significantly more or gained significantly less
compared to other families and workers at virtually every point considered in the quantile income and earnings distributions. African-American families and blue collar workers are also shown to have experienced overall absolute income declines. Marginal decompositions for other population subgroups are also presented.

Statistical Tests of Changes in U.S. Poverty, 1975 to 1990

Buhong Sheng, Brian Cushing, and Victor Chow

Research Paper 9409

View Paper  (23 pp, 1024 KB)

Abstract: Traditional measures of poverty, such as the Headcount Ratio, are seriously flawed, theoretically. And application of such measures without accounting for statistical variability compounds the potential errors. We apply two traditional and five newly developed distribution-sensitive poverty measures along with methods of statistical inference to examine poverty changes in the U.S. from 1975 to 1990. We also let the poverty line vary over a range rather than apply a single, arbitrary poverty line. The traditional poverty measures and distribution-sensitive measures present different patters in the timing and duration of fluctuations in the poverty level. The numerical comparisons successfully rank order less than half the year-to-year and period changes in poverty. For the distribution-sensitive measures, the statistical procedures successfully rank orders nearly all year-to-year and period comparisons. The combined use of distribution-sensitive measures, multiple poverty lines, and statistical inference yields much more robust conclusions about poverty than do traditional poverty statistics.

The Recovery of Rural Economies from Military Base Closures: Control Group Analysis of Two Decades of Experience

Andrew Isserman and Peter Stenberg

Research Paper 9408

View Paper (pp. 31, KB 1947)

Abstract: The Department of Defense has announced 180 military base closures since 1988. More closures will be announced in 1995. The President”s Economic Adjustment Committee works with communities to help them put the bases into civilian use and recover from the loss of local jobs. It claims that jobs lost on the bases have been replaced by twice as many new jobs and that “local community leaders are the real heroes in this adjustment process.” This paper asks whether that optimistic, self-help message is an appropriate one for rural areas where the military base is a dominant employer and alternative development opportunities may be limited. It answers the question on the basis of case studies of seven major base closures that occurred in nonmetropolitan counties during the early 1970s. The control group method provides estimates of the recovery of the local economies by sector by year in terms of the number of jobs. Four of the affected counties grew rapidly and show no sustained adverse employment effects of the closures. Four other counties essentially stagnated. None showed the drastic negative effects predicted by input-output and export base studies. The main factor in being able to absorb the base closure is the local economic context, not local initiative. The case studies suggest that the nature and potential of the local economy ought to be an important factor in base closure decisions.

The Effects of the New Hungarian Energy Policy

Edit Kranner

Research Paper 9407

View Paper (pp. 16, 712 KB)

Abstract: This paper focuses on the economic and welfare effects of the new Hungarian energy policy which was developed in order to guide the process of transformation of the energy sector from a centrally planned to a market economy. The impacts of the changing energy policy are illustrated here on the examples of the coal mining industry within the energy sector. The new government”s intention is to reduce the inefficient, formerly heavily subsidized coal mining activity and make the remaining companies function within market conditions. The first democratic government after the fall of communism chose a gradual approach in the reform policy as opposed to a s”shock therapy.” The impacts of the recent gradual policy of transformation are compared with the possible consequences of the alternative faster approach regarding both the demand and supply sides of the Hungarian coal market as well as regarding the changes in the structure of coal production and employment. Changes in the welfare of different groups of the society are also analyzed.

New Technology Adoption in West Virginia: Implications for Manufacturing Modernization Policies

Terance Rephann and Philip Shapira

Research Paper 9406

View Paper  (pp. 71, 2511 KB)

Abstract: This paper explores the determinants of new technology adoption using data obtained from a 1993 survey of 299 manufacturing establishments in the state of West Virginia. It examines the use of 20 hardware based and organizational new manufacturing technologies, aggregate technology use, and plans for future technology use. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that larger, export-oriented, branch plants that manufacture products in long production runs and are located in counties with a sizable manufacturing sector adopt more new technologies than other types of plants. The results also suggest that there is a role for further government assistance in encouraging plant modernization. Although participation in a state technology assistance program is not yet associated with higher levels of aggregate new technology use, it may be related to the adoption of specific technologies and receptivity to new technology investment. Results also suggest that the current strategy of targeting smaller and intermediate sized plants with services focused on multiple clustered locations may be the best way to stimulate new technology use among manufacturers.

Racial Discrimination in Urban Mortgage Lending: An Examination of FHA versus Conventional Loans

David J. Sorenson

Research Paper 9405

View Paper  (pp. 30, 1133 KB)

Abstract: This study adds to the evidence on discrimination in lending terms, primarily in the use of federal loan insurance, by re-examining previous studies of FHA versus conventional loan extension which use the 1983 Survey of Consumer Finances. Following an attempt to replicate the results of the previous SCF findings, the analysis is extended to include other independent variables suggested by theory and other empirical studies. Further extensions examine the effect of interest rate differentials and potential distinctions among minorities in FHA loan usage. The findings of this study have a number of implications, both for theoretical and empirical work concerning loan terms. The most compelling results concern the interest rate effect. It suggests that FHA loans may not, in fact, be the inferior loans they are characterized to be, especially in this sample. Overall, the models estimated were somewhat disappointing with respect to the unexpected significant results in the wrong direction on several variables, especially those concerning welfare and other unreliable income. Despite these troubling results, the findings of the study do show that a number of relevant characteristics have been omitted from previous studies, and that the racial effect finding is not robust to reasonable extensions. In addition, there is some doubt as to the reliability of some of the data in the SCF

Keeping the “Wild” in Wonderful West Virginia

Steve Hollenhorst and Paul Salstrom

Research Paper 9404

View Paper  (pp. 28, 1143 KB)

Abstract: The story of West Virginia has been told and retold, usually in the positive context of the “march of civilization.” Early settlers confronted a vast wilderness and set about taming it. State government has long been a partner in the process, promulgating industrial development and economic expansion through supportive legislation and policy. West Virginians have paid a price for this economic success in the form of environmental degradation. The first victim was the vast West Virginia wilderness. Today, wild nature is viewed as a scarce commodity steeped in historic, cultural, and symbolic value. In response, state officials have made some effort in recent decades to adopt policies to preserve portions of what little remains. Yet there is inevitably a lag time between public sentiment and government action. While change has been slow, the growing popular appreciation of wild nature has forced West Virginia”s policy makers to face conservation philosopher Aldo Leopold”s question, “whether a still ”higher standard of living” is worth its cost in things natural, wild, and free.”This analysis is organized around three themes. The first is a discussion of the changes that have occurred in the way West Virginians perceive forested wildlands and their relationship to it. Secondly, the evolution and development of state public land management will be examined. Particular focus will be placed on comparing current public attitudes toward wildlands and natural areas with state land policy and management. Thirdly, a policy action agenda is proposed for bridging the disparities between public sentiment and lagging public land policy and management direction.

The Effects of Large Dams on Small Economies

Mostafa Aleseyed and Terance Rephann

Research Paper 9403

View Paper  (pp. 28, 1407 KB)

Abstract:  Dam construction has played an important role in regional economic development initiatives such as the Tennessee Valley Authority. However, few ex post empirical studies exist of the effects of such projects on smaller rural areas. This paper employs quasi-experimental control group methods to examine the effects of large dams on county income, population, and industry earnings growth for dams that were constructed in rural counties during the period 1963-1977. This paper shows that new dams, generally have few positive economic effects on the counties in which they are built. However, dams built to provide reservoirs for recreational purposes are capable of stimulating some rural economic growth.

Railroads, Deforestation, and the Transformation of Agriculture in the West Virginia Back Counties, 1880-1920

Ronald L. Lewis

Research Paper 9402

View Paper (pp. 43, 1579 KB)

Abstract: Industrial development transformed the back counties from a subsistence to a market economy spawning towns, commerce, and population growth. The railroads tied the back counties into the national markets, but also brought in goods produced outside the region, including farm products from the Midwest. Local farmers either became marginalized, or were forced to adopt the commercial system. Farmers who made the shift soon found that they could neither compete in the marketplace, nor could they return to the old subsistence system of the past. Consequently, farming went into decline.

Survey of Technology Use in
West Virginia Manufacturing

Terance Rephann and Philip Shapira

Research Paper #9401

View Paper (pp. 73, 3166 KB)



9332 JAMES J. FRIEDBERG. 1993. European Nature Protection Law and its Significance for Bulgaria.

9331 LUC ANSELIN. 1993. Local Indicators of Spatial Association – LISA.

9330 LUC ANSELIN. 1993. The Moran Scatterplot as an ESDA Tool to Assess Local Instability in Spatial Association.

9329 LUC ANSELIN. 1993. Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis and Geographic Information Systems.

9328 ANDREW ISSERMAN and TERANCE REPHANN. 1993. The Economic Effects of the Appalachian Regional Commission: An Empirical Assessment of 26 Years of Regional Development Planning.

9327 JAMES J. FRIEDBERG and BRANIMIR ZAIMOV. 1993. Politics, Environment and the Rule of Law in Bulgaria.

9326 JEFF B. CROMWELL and WALTER C. LABYS. 1993. Testing for Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Agricultural Commodity Prices.

9325 DAVID J. SORENSON. 1993. An Empirical Evaluation of Profit Cycle Theory.

9323 JOHN O”LOUGHLIN, COLIN FLINT, and LUC ANSELIN. 1993. The Political Geography of the Nazi Vote: Context, Confession and Class in the 1930 Reichstag Election.

9322 TERANCE J. REPHANN. 1993. Highways and Regional Economic Development: What Can We Learn from Regional Economics Theory and Models?

9321 WILLIAM LEVERNIER and BRIAN CUSHING. 1993. A New Look at the Determinants of the Intrametropolitan Distribution of Population and Employment.

9320 BRENT YARNAL and ROBERT B. BEGG. 1993. Environmental Change and the Decollectivization of Agriculture: Three Bulgarian Cases.

9319 BOIAN KOULOV. 1993. The Tourist Industry and the Environment: Bulgarian International Tourism in Transition-Environmental Implications.

9318 BOIAN KOULOV. 1993. Economic Structure and Environmental Problems in the District of Bourgas, Bulgaria: A Preliminary Study.

9317 BOIAN KOULOV. 1993. Post-Socialist Ecopolitics: The Case Study of the Bourgas Region in Bulgaria.

9316 BOIAN KOULOV. 1993. Geography of Electoral Preferences: The 1990 Great National Assembly Elections in Bulgaria.

9315 KRASSIMIRA PASKALEVA and PHILIP SHAPIRA. 1993. Industrial Development, Environment, and the Impacts of Restructuring in Bulgaria”s Bourgas Region.

9314 SALLY WARD MAGGARD. 1993. Gender Analysis in Appalachian Research: A Methodological Essay.

9313 TERANCE J. REPHANN and ANDREW M. ISSERMAN. 1993. New Highways as Economic Development Tools: An Evaluation Using Quasi-Experimental Control Group Matching Methods.

9312 TERANCE J. REPHANN and ANDREW M. ISSERMAN. 1993. Highways and Rural Economic Development: Evidence from Quasi-Experimental Studies.

9311 ANN M. OBERHAUSER. 1993. Gender, Space, and Scale: Exploring Household Economic Strategies in Rural Appalachia.

9310 ELIZABETH E. BURY and RICHARD C. SMITH. 1993. Demographic and Economic Change in West Virginia, 1980-1990: A Primer.

9309 DIMITRINA MIKHOVA and JOHN PICKLES. 1993. GIS in Bulgaria: Development and Perspectives.

9308 JOHN PICKLES and DIMITRINA MIKHOVA. 1993. Environmental Data and Social Change in Bulgaria:Problems and Prospects of Data Availability for Future Research.

9307 BRIGITTE BOCOUM and WALTER C. LABYS. 1993. Modelling the Economic Impacts of Further Mineral Processing: The Case of Zambia and Morocco.

9306 SALLY WARD MAGGARD. 1993. From Farm to Coal Camp to Back Office and McDonald”s: Living in the Midst of Appalachia”s Latest Transformation.

9305 STEPHEN F. FOURNIER and ANDREW M. ISSERMAN. 1993. Backwash or Spread? The Economic Effects of the Honda Auto Assembly Plant on its Host County and Rural Hinterland.

9304 ANDREW ISSERMAN and TERANCE REPHANN. 1993. Culture and Labor Force Participation: Is there really an Appalachian Effect?

9303 BRIAN CUSHING and BUHONG ZHENG. 1993. Characteristics of the Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Poor: A Comparative Analysis.

9302 BRIAN CUSHING and SUDHA SUBRAHMANYAM. 1993. A Numerical Technique for the Evaluation of Tax Incidence.

9301 BRIAN CUSHING and BUHONG ZHENG. 1993. The Reevaluation of the Differences among Metropolitan, Nonmetropolitan and Central City Poverty.



9227 NANCY ANDERS NORTON, TIM T. PHIPPS, and JERALD J. FLETCHER. 1993. Nonpoint Pollution Policy: The Role of Voluntary Programs.

9226 PETER ODHIAMBO NDEGE. 1992. The Colonial State, Capital, Patriarchy, and the Subordination of Women Traders in Western Kenya.

9223 ANDREW ISSERMAN. 1992. U.S. Immigration Policy and the Industrial Heartland: Laws, Origins, Settlement Patterns, and Economic Consequences.

9222 STEPHEN F. FOURNIER and STEN AXELSSON. 1992. The Shift from Manufacturing to Services in Sweden.

9221 BUHONG ZHENG. 1992. Two Essays on Poverty Measurement.

9220 WILLIAM J. MILNE. 1992. Coal and Regional Development in Canada: Economic and Environmental Concerns.

9219 EMILY A. SPIELER. 1992. Social Welfare Policy in the Context of Economic Restructuring: Lessons from the West Virginia Workers” Compensation Program.

9218 SALLY WARD MAGGARD. 1992. Will the Real Daisy Mae Please stand up? A Methodological Essay on Finding Out Who She Is and Was.

9217 SALLY WARD MAGGARD. 1992. Gender Constraints and Political Mobilization among the Working Poor: An Historical Case Study of Health Care Workers in Appalachia.

9216 ANDREW M. ISSERMAN. 1992. The Right People, The Right Rates: Making Population Estimates and Forecasts with an Interregional Cohort-Component Model.

9215 STEPHAN WEILER. 1992. Industrial Structure, Unemployment, and Poverty in Rural West Virginia: A Dual Labor Market Analysis.

9214 ANDREW M. ISSERMAN. 1992. Lost in Space? On the History, Status, and Future of Regional Science.

9213 MICHAEL C. CRAW. 1992. Limits and Potential of Mineral Resource-Based Development: The Case of Five Mineral Exporters.

9212 WALTER C. LABYS. 1992. The International Demand for Coal: Market Structure, Prices and Trade.

9211 STEPHEN FOURNIER and ANDREW ISSERMAN. 1992. The Automobile Industry and the American Dream: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of the Economic Development Effects of the Volkswagen, Honda, and Nissan Plants.

9209 BRIAN J. CUSHING. 1992. Race, Gender, and the Effect of the Social Welfare System on Migration Decisions of Low-Income Households.

9208 SUDHA SUBRAHMANYAM. 1992. The Ph.D. as a Signal by Economists Seeking Non-Academic Jobs.

9207 DEZSO KOVACS and SALLY WARD MAGGARD. 1992. The Human Face of Political, Economic and Social Change in Eastern Europe.

9206 DARIA DARNELL with JAMES FRIEDBERG. 1992. Regional Policy in the European Community and its Environmental Impact.

9205 BUHONG ZHENG. 1992. A New Look at Changes in U.S. Poverty from 1975-1989: Applications of “Distribution-Sensitive” Measures of Poverty and Statistical Inferences.

9204 NIKOLAI CHUMACHENKO. 1992. Economic Problems of the Independent Ukraine.

9203 LARS-GUSTAF BJURKLO. 1992. Estimating Intra- and Interregional Freight Flows.

9202 SUDHA SUBRAHMANYAM. 1992. Inter-Regional Variations in Tax-Expenditure Policies and the Evidence on Tax Impacts.

9201 G. DAVID CURRY and WEI QIN PAN. 1992. Correctional Administration and Recidivism among Female Inmates. 9215 STEPHAN WEILER. 1992. Industrial Structure, Unemployment, and Poverty in Rural West Virginia: A Dual Labor Market Analysis.



9120 PAUL BEAUMONT and ANNE RINDERLE. 1991. A Monte Carlo Investigation of Optimal and Heuristic Matching Methods for Treatment-Effects Tests.

9119 STEPHEN F. FOURNIER and STEN AXELSSON. 1991. Manufacturing Services and Servicing Manufacturing: The Changing Shape of Industry.

9118 BRIAN J. CUSHING. 1991. The Effects of Race, Income, Gender, and the Social Welfare System on Destination Choices of Migrants.

9117 SUDHA SUBRAHMANYAM. 1991. Inter-Regional Tax Incidence with Public Services.

9116 JAMES J. FRIEDBERG. 1991. Closing the Gap Between Word and Deed in European Community Environmental Policy.

9114 CARLA DICKSTEIN. 1991. Developing Worker Cooperatives as a Rural Development Strategy.

9113 CARLA DICKSTEIN. 1991. Offshore Competition for Back Offices: Policy Implications for Promotion of Back Offices in West Virginia.

9112 ROGER A. LOHMANN and MARY SUE BRACKEN. 1991. The Buddhist Charitable Commons in Japan and Asia.

9109 KONSTANTIN MISKO. 1991. Regional Policy and Regional Development in the Soviet Union: Problems and Prospects.

9107 BRIAN J. CUSHING. 1991. The Effects of Race, Income, and the Social Welfare System on U.S. Metropolitan Mobility.

9106 EMILY A. SPIELER. 1991. Social Insurance Programs in the Context of Economic Restructuring: Observations of a West Virginia Policymaker.

9105 TERANCE J. REPHANN. 1991. Highway Investment and Regional Economic Development.

9104 SALLY WARD MAGGARD. 1991. Local Labor Markets, Gender, and Inequality in Central Appalachia.

9103 SALLY WARD MAGGARD. 1991. Black Gold, Gender, and Politics: Women”s Lives and the Political Economy of Coal.

9102 RONALD L. LEWIS. 1991. Appalachian Restructuring in Historical Perspective: Coal, Culture, and Social Change in West Virginia.

9101 JOHN C. 1991. University Extension Programs and Latin American Development: The Early Years.